On June 14, 1943 the 57th Troop Carrier Squadron (TCS) air echelon flew to Port Moresby, New Guinea, arriving there June 29, 1943. The ground echelon left Baer Field on June 17 and arrived at Port Moresby on July 31. The 57th TCS moved on Aug. 2 to Dobodura, New Guinea and two days later flew the first mission to Salamaua. On September 2, nine of the 57th's planes dropped 90,000 pounds of ammunition, food and equipment to allied troops in the area. Until December 23, 1943, the unit made flights to several locations in New Guinea, as well as Port Moresby and Australia. After October 16, the air echelon operated from Port Moresby, with the rest of the squadron moving there on December 20, 1943.
In addition to C-47s, the squadron flew a B-17F from February to May 1944 on long-range missions. On April 8, 1944, the 57th flew personnel and equipment from Guadalcanal to forward bases at Munda and Dobodura. The unit supported the invasion of Noemfoor Island on July 2 and on September 23, moved to Biak Island. They made the first trip to Morotai Island on October 5, carrying supplies forward and returning with litter patients.
An additional mission took them to Leyte, Philippine Islands on October 31 to haul supplies to the beachhead and return wounded to hospitals. In January 1945 the unit began the transition to C-46 aircraft. It also moved to San Jose, Mindoro, Philippine Islands, on Feb. 18; then to Porac, Luzon on May 19. C-46s flew from Clark Field, 15 miles from the squadron's camp. On June 16, 1945, the 57th TCS made its first flight to Okinawa, the destination of most missions for the next two months.
The war ended shortly after the move to Clark Field in August and the 57th was used to help transport the 11th Airborne Division to Okinawa. September 20 brought another move, this time to Tachikawa AB near Tokyo. Operations continued in Japan until January 21, 1946 when the last of the personnel and equipment transferred to other organizations. The 57th Troop Carrier Squadron inactivated on March 25, 1946.